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Queen Elizabeth II: A Life in History

Queen Elizabeth II: A Life in History

This article is an edited transcript of Vikings Uncovered Part 1 on Dan Snow’s History Hit, first broadcast 29 April 2016. You can hearken to the complete episode beneath or to the complete podcast free of charge on Acast.

Twelve hundred years in the past, Portmahomack was one among Scotland’s most affluent and necessary communities.

Very few folks have heard of it as we speak, nevertheless it was one of many earliest factors of Christian settlement in Scotland. It’s in a protected bay east of Ross, proper on the sting of the Highlands.

It was superbly positioned as a waypoint for retailers, and vacationers, and pilgrims, everybody touring down the east coast.

A current excavation revealed the presence of a rich monastery, the place scriptures had been copied onto rigorously ready animal skins, expert craftsmen created stunning jewel-encrusted non secular plates and ornaments and sculptors carved intricate Celtic crosses. Trade was the supply of those riches.

We know from what archaeologists have revealed that Portmahomack was all of the sudden and totally destroyed.

Read more: Follow the Paths of Viking Raiders from Norway to North America

The sea introduced commerce and with it, wealth. But in round 800 AD, the ocean additionally introduced violent destruction.

We know from what archaeologists have revealed that Portmahomack was all of the sudden and totally destroyed. We can see smashed items and fragments of the sculptures mingled in amongst the ashes of buildings that appear to have been utterly burned down. The settlement was successfully worn out.

Of course, we are able to’t be sure, however evidently the likeliest clarification was that this settlement, this monastery was attacked and looted. Some items of human stays had been discovered. A cranium was discovered.

That cranium had been shattered and there was nonetheless a mighty reduce on it. A sword blade had left a deep gouge. It was nearly definitely a violent dying. Either at or close to the purpose of dying, this physique was terribly hacked by swords.

Who had been these individuals who got here and destroyed this monastery? Who had been these people who disrespected the Christian God and ignored this holy web site? It appears pretty probably that these folks had been from throughout the North Sea. These folks sought gold and sought riches. These folks had been Vikings.

The Portmahomack assault is the one Viking raid on Britain that we’ve got precise archaeological proof for.

Famously in fact, there’s Lindisfarne, which is a monastery additional down the east coast of Britain, off the coast of Northumberland. That raid, which occurred at across the identical time, roughly 790, echoes terrifyingly by means of the studies of the Christian chroniclers.

Read more: Viking Exploration – Australian National Maritime Museum

This was the start of an period of assaults by a folks we now describe because the Vikings.

These had been Norse folks from Sweden, Denmark, and Norway, roughly.

They had been utilizing vastly subtle navigational abilities, ship-building know-how, they usually pushed out from their homelands.

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The Vikings expanded far past Scandinavia

We discuss lots concerning the Vikings in the British Isles, however additionally they conquered what turned Normandy, in France, which is actually, Land of the Northmen. They conquered components of Italy and components of the the Levant on the japanese coast of the Mediterranean.

Fascinatingly, Russia might even have been named after the Vikings. One of the earliest written sources, a Frankish chronicle, calls folks the Rus’ courting again to the ninth century AD.

It appears that Russia, the title Russia, and certainly, the Russian folks originated as Viking rowers, who travelled down the good rivers of what’s now Russia then settled and colonised it.

The Frankish authorities recognized these Rus’ as a kind of Germanic tribe referred to as the Swedes. And now, the trendy title of Russia, which got here into use in round concerning the seventeenth century is derived from the Greek Rōssía which is derived from root Rhôs, which is the Greek for Rus.

Read more: The Vikings in Britain: a brief history – Historical Association

So evidently Russia, the title Russia, and certainly, the Russian folks originated as Viking rowers, who travelled down the good rivers of what’s now Russia then settled and colonised it.

The Vikings then raided so far as the Caspian Sea, from the Atlantic proper the best way into Central Asia.

They based Dublin, made deep inroads into England and Scotland, settled in Iceland and crossed to Greenland the place the stays of Norse settlements can nonetheless be seen.

Did the Vikings settle North America?

The massive query mark considerations North America. We know there was one web site, L’Anse aux Meadows, on the very northern tip of Newfoundland, which was found in 1960.

We know they had been there however was it a fleeting go to or was it a colony? Was it a daily place they went to search for pure uncooked supplies or wildlife or maybe different issues? Centuries earlier than Christopher Columbus set foot there, had been the Vikings common guests to North America?

The descendants of the Vikings left sagas, stunning works of literature in which reality and fiction are sometimes poetically intermixed. They state that Leif Erikson led an expedition to the east coast of North America they usually describe good harbours and all types of fascinating particulars.

How a lot accuracy is there in these sagas? After figuring out that first North American web site in 1960, not an enormous quantity of labor has been finished on Viking websites in North America, as a result of it has been inconceivable to search out them. The Vikings didn’t have a tendency to depart a lot behind. They didn’t construct large triumphal arches, bathhouses, temples.

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Read more Where did the vikings travel – Indochina Airlines

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